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  • waterscarcity

    National Geographic Presents: Water Scarcity

    By Peter Gleick, President-Emeritus and Chief Scientist

    October 27, 2016

    The reality of climate change, driven by the fossil-fuel industrialization of the planet, is upon us. Scientists have known for decades of this risk and have, with increasing urgency, tried to alert the public and policy makers about the threat and the opportunities to reduce that threat, to little avail. And now, we must live with unavoidable consequences, even as we continue to work to reduce the emissions of climate-changing gases.

    Among those unavoidable consequences are widespread impacts on freshwater – perhaps the most important resource for human and ecological well being, economic productivity, and global security. Water is a renewable resource, and vital for all the things we want to do. The hydrologic cycle of evaporation, condensation, precipitation, runoff, and back to evaporation provides life-giving rains for crops and forests, generates the runoff we see flowing in our rivers and streams, and refreshes the oceans that are the nurseries for much of the life on the planet.

    Yet as the climate changes, the hydrologic cycle must change as well – indeed we already see evidence of these changes. Rising temperatures are causing more evaporation and more demand for water by agriculture and natural ecosystems. More heat and moisture in the atmosphere are contributing to more severe storms and flooding. Warming lakes and streams are beginning to devastate fisheries and change water quality and living conditions for countless aquatic organisms. Droughts are becoming more severe under the influence of climate change. Rising sea levels will increasingly damage coastal wetlands as well as devastate communities that cannot afford to build massively expensive coastal defenses or to relocate.

    The evidence of change is all around us, and not just in the form of the rapidly rising thermometers that are the most commonly cited evidence of the greenhouse effect. We are seeing larger and more severe algal blooms in our lakes and along our coasts. The California drought has been deeper and more sustained than it would otherwise have been, as have other droughts around the world. Extreme precipitation events are becoming more frequent and damaging. And pressures, including political pressures, on already scarce water resources are growing.

    Even without climate change, the world has plenty of severe water challenges. Seven hundred million people lack access to safe and affordable drinking water. More than two billion lack adequate sanitation. Droughts and floods are already the most damaging extreme natural events for society. Under investment and poor management of water systems leads to preventable contamination events and water-related diseases, especially for poorer, disadvantaged communities. Tensions and violence over shared water resources are growing. Climate change is an added burden on all of these water problems.

    We must, and we can, tackle global and local water challenges. We must, and we can, include the new threats to our water posed by human-caused climate change. We need a new way of thinking about water, what I’ve called “a soft path for water” that moves away from old, damaging water policies and toward true water sustainability. The soft path requires smarter use of innovative technologies for obtaining, purifying, and distributing water. It requires using our water far more carefully and efficiently to produce the food, fiber, and goods and services we need. It includes applying smart economic tools to price water properly while acknowledging that access to basic safe water and sanitation are also fundamental human rights. And the soft path requires that we develop 21st century policies to manage water resources for the long-term and for future generations, and in a way that not only addresses the risks posed by climate change but works to reduce those risks as quickly as possible A sustainable future for water is possible, but we must move along a different path than the one we are on today and that requires that all of us, as individuals, communities, nations, and a planet work together.

    This article was originaly published on www.beforetheflood.com

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  • 21st Century Water Demand Forecasting

    By Matthew Heberger, Senior Research Associate and Heather Cooley, Water Program Director

    August 31, 2016

    Yogi Berra once said, “It’s hard to make predictions, especially about the future.” And nowhere is this more true than in the water business. Forecasts are extremely important for water utilities, which must make plans today to meet their communities’ current and future water needs. Since water supply projects can take years to plan and build, utilities’ long-term view often reaches twenty years or more into the future. But the industry has a poor track record when it comes to long-range forecasting.

    The results of this are not purely academic. The end result is that water utilities may build unneeded or oversized water supply and treatment infrastructure – things like reservoirs, pumping stations, treatment plants, and desalination facilities – passing on the costs to customers and creating unnecessary environmental impacts. …»

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  • Steven Depolo

    U.S. Bottled Water Consumption on the Rise: What Does It Mean?

    By Rebecca Olson, Communications Associate

    July 21, 2016

                           Steven Depolo

    If last year’s bottled water sales are any indication, the sale of bottled water in the U.S. this year will likely surpass that of soda. In 2015, Americans bought the equivalent of five bottles of water per citizen each week. Meanwhile, the sale of soda fell 1.5 percent, reaching the lowest level per person since 1985.

    While there is a positive side to this picture — certainly water is a healthier beverage to consume than sugary carbonated drinks — the consumption of bottled water has negative environmental and economic repercussions, as outlined in Peter Gleick’s 2010 book Bottled and Sold: The Story Behind Our Obsession with Bottled Water. As Gleick explained, each bottle of water is the product of a vast amount of energy and contributes to plastic waste. …»

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  • ERW Opinion: On Methods for Assessing Water-Resource Risks and Vulnerabilities

    By Peter Gleick, President Emeritus and Chief Scientist

    July 29, 2016

    Much more can and should be done with new data and methods to improve our understanding of water challenges, says Peter Gleick.

    As populations and economies continue to expand and as anthropogenic climate change accelerates, pressures on regional freshwater resources are also growing. A wide range of assessments of water pressures has been produced in recent years, including the regular updates from the United Nations World Water Development Reports (WWAP 2003, 2006, 2009, 2012, 2014, 2015), the biennial assessment The World’s Water (Gleick et al 1998–2015), the Aqueduct water stress datasets produced by the World Resources Institute (WRI 2015), and numerous other efforts to develop quantitative water measures and indices. The development of such methods has become increasingly common in recent years in order to help measure progress and evaluate the impacts or effectiveness of water policies and practices. The new letter in this volume of Environmental Research Letters by Padowski et al (2015) offers another opportunity to evaluate freshwater threats and vulnerabilities.

    …»

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  • Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, courtesy PG&E

    National Geographic ScienceBlogs: Diablo Canyon, Climate Change, Drought, and Energy Policy

    By Peter Gleick, President Emeritus and Chief Scientist

    June 24, 2016

    The announcement that Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) will close the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Plant when its current operating licenses expire in 2025 has caused what can only be described as consternation mixed with occasional conniptions among the nuclear industry and some strongly pro-nuclear groups.

    That’s understandable. Diablo Canyon is aging, but is not the oldest nuclear plant in the fleet and PG&E could have chosen to push for a renewal of the license to continue operations for many more years. Diablo Canyon’s two reactors are also California’s last operating nuclear plants, following the closure many years ago of Rancho Seco near Sacramento, and more recently, the last of the San Onofre reactors. As such, the closure is symbolic of the broader woes of the nuclear power industry in the United States, which has been unable to build new reactors and is seeing the current reactors being shuttered, one by one.

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  • SaltonSea2_lg

    Fits and Starts at the Salton Sea

    By Michael Cohen, Senior Research Associate

    May 16, 2016

    Daniel M. Edwards
    Daniel M. Edwards

    The fortunes and prospects of California’s Salton Sea have ebbed and flowed over the years. Currently, the Sea is enjoying renewed attention and funding, after almost a decade of neglect and indifference. The State of California is poised to dedicate $80 million to efforts to protect and revitalize (a small portion of) the Salton Sea, prompted in large part by a fast-approaching tipping point that will see a dramatic shrinking of the Sea, devastating its rich ecosystem and imperiling the health of hundreds of thousands of people in the region.

    …»

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  • global-drought-201602_GPCC_SPI03_edited-400x198

    National Geographic ScienceBlogs: Global Droughts: A Bad Year

    By Peter Gleick, President

    April 27, 2016

    Populations around the world face many severe water challenges, from scarcity to contamination, from political or violent conflict to economic disruption. As populations and economies grow, peak water pressures on existing renewable water resources also tend to grow up to the point that natural scarcity begins to constrain the options of water planners and managers. At this point, the effects of natural fluctuations in water availability in the form of extreme weather events become even more potentially disruptive than normal. In particular, droughts begin to bite deeply into human well-being.

    …»

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  • 2016-03-25-1458940037-4607399-20130720IMG_6479-thumb

    Huffpost Green: An Open Letter From Peter Gleick: My Transition at the Pacific Institute

    By Peter Gleick, President

    March 25, 2016

    As readers of this column may already know, earlier this week the Pacific Institute and I announced an important and exciting change: on July 1st after 28 years as co-founder and President of the Institute, I will be moving to a new position as President Emeritus and Chief Scientist. A wide search for a new president has been launched.

    …»

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  • conflict-chronology-update-590x431

    National Geographic ScienceBlogs: Water, Security, and Conflict: Violence over Water in 2015

    By Peter Gleick, President

    February 17, 2016

    Since its founding in 1987, the Pacific Institute has worked to understand the links between water resources, environmental issues, and international security and conflict. This has included early analytical assessments (such as a 1987 Ambio paper  and this one from the journal Climatic Change) of the risks between climate change and security through changes in access to Arctic resources, food production, and water resources, as well as the ongoing Water Conflict Chronology – an on-line database, mapping system, and timeline of all known water-related conflicts. In 2014, an analysis of the links between drought, climate change, water resources, and the conflict in Syria was published in the American Meteorological Society journal Weather, Climate, and Society.

    …»

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  • groundwater-slider-final

    Moving from Theory to Practice: A Synthesis of Lessons about Incentive-Based Instruments for Freshwater Management

    by Heather Cooley, Michael Cohen, and Matthew Heberger

    February 8, 2016

    There has been growing interest in applying incentive-based instruments, such as pollution charges and tradeable permits, to address the twin challenges of accessing enough freshwater to meet our needs while also preserving the well-being of freshwater ecosystems. These instruments use direct or indirect financial incentives as motivation to reallocate water or to reduce the health and environmental risks posed by an activity. But what do we know about how they have actually performed?

    …»

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