63 Multi-Benefit Resources


Hydro-economic models: Concepts, design, applications, and future prospects

Author: Harou et al., University College London (2009)
Geography:
Level of Detail:

Availability:

Water Management Strategies:

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: ,


Hydro-economic models: Concepts, design, applications, and future prospects discusses the role of economic valuation in water demand. The paper analyzed over 80 hydro-economic models to evaluate the ability of current models to include spatial and temporal components of water systems. This allows water managers to determine the value in decreasing system inefficiencies.

Conservation Gateway

Author: The Nature Conservancy (N/A)
Geography:
Level of Detail:

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , ,


The Conservation Gateway provides resources to support conservation practices in water management. The gateway provides a variety of resources from funding for freshwater conservation to protocols on water quality assessment. The resources are divided between: Corporate Water Use, Environmental Flows, Water Infrastructure, Water Quality, Habitat Protection and Restoration, Financial Solutions, Saving Great Rivers, and Setting Freshwater Priorities.

Bringing Water and Land Use Together

Author: Local Government Commission (2019)
Geography:
Level of Detail: , ,

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , , , , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , ,


Bringing Water and Land Use Together discusses Integrated Regional Water Management. This strategy is similar to the multi-benefit framework and integrates multiple groups of stakeholders to find mutually beneficial solutions to water management issues. The report highlights case studies throughout California that have adopted different integrated management approaches. It provides lists of recommendations for different stakeholders attempting to engage in integrated management.

The City Water Resilience Approach

Author: Fletcher et al., Arup (2019)
Geography:
Level of Detail: ,

Availability:

Water Management Strategies:

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , ,


The City Water Resilience Approach considers how cities can create resilient water management plans in the face of changing city populations and climate. The report goes through a multistep approach and addresses potential issues between different stakeholders as well as other barriers. It focuses on providing the increasing urban population with safe, resilient water resources and protection from water related disasters.

Just green enough: contesting environmental gentrification in Greenpoint, Brooklyn

Author: Curran & Hamilton, DePaul University (2012)
Geography:
Level of Detail:

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , ,


Just green enough: contesting environmental gentrification in Greenpoint, Brooklyn is a case study showing the benefits of partnerships between developers, environmentalists, and community members. While development can lead to displacement, there is a space for strategic development that does not negatively alter the neighborhood. Focusing on people’s health instead of aesthetics can protect the character of the neighborhood.

An Equitable Water Future

Author: US Water Alliance (2017)
Geography:
Level of Detail:

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , , ,


An Equitable Water Future highlights the main challenges and main solutions in water equity in the United States. There are 1.4 million Americans without access to modern plumbing. Affordability can also contribute to water inequity, the bottom 20% can pay 1/5 of their income on water bills. Communities might have disproportionate impacts from historical water quality threats such as nuclear testing or lead pipes. Examples of projects and organizations that are addressing these equity issues are provided. Equity and climate resilience are also discussed.

Drinking Water and Wastewater Utility Customer Assistance Programs

Author: EPA (2016)
Geography:
Level of Detail:

Availability:

Water Management Strategies:

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , ,


Drinking Water and Wastewater Utility Customer Assistance Programs (CAPs) is a synopsis of utilities across the nation performing customer assistance programs. Bill discount, flexible terms, and temporary assistance are common programs. The report details specific examples of each of these CAPs and examines issues with the scope and targeting of CAPs.

Economic Benefits: Metics and Methods for Landscape Performance Assessment

Author: Wang et al., Utah State University (2016)
Geography:
Level of Detail:

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , , , , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , , ,


The Economic Benefits: Metrics and Methods for Landscape Performance Assessment presents a method and standard metrics for assessing the economic benefits of landscapes. This method and the associated metrics can be used to increase the scientific rigor of landscape architecture and to help achieve high(er) levels of sustainability in the built environment. Three test cases are used to demonstrate the utility of the method.

Landscape Performance Series

Author: Landscape Architecture Foundation (N/A)
Geography:
Level of Detail: , , , ,

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , ,


The Landscape Performance Series is a compilation of case studies, fact sheets, and a Benefits Toolkit, to support sustainable landscape design. It is available for designers, agencies, and advocates to help evaluate performance, show value, and make the case for landscapes.

Landscape Performance Series: Benefits Toolkit

Author: Landscape Architecture Foundation (N/A)
Geography:
Level of Detail: ,

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , ,


The Benefits Toolkit, housed in the Landscape Performance Series, lists calculators and tools that directly help with quantifying the benefits of landscapes. Users can filter results by “Landscape Performance Benefit” including several options for water-related benefits.

Water Funds Toolbox

Author: The Nature Conservancy (N/A)
Geography:
Level of Detail: , ,

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , ,


The Water Fund Toolbox provides a wide variety of resources, case studies, tools, etc. for groups seeking to create or advance the work of a Water Fund. A Water Fund is an organization that designs and enhances financial and governance mechanisms which unite public, private, and civil society stakeholders around a common goal to contribute to water security through nature-based solutions and sustainable water management.

The Untapped Potential of California’s Water Supply: Efficiency, Reuse, and Stormwater – Issue Brief

Author: Gleick et al., Pacific Institute, NRDC (2014)
Geography:
Level of Detail: ,

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , , , , , , , ,


Increased pressures on California’s water supply, including from population growth and intense periods of drought exacerbated by climate change, are leading to the overuse of surface water and groundwater. But with existing technology and conservation methods, the state can take vital steps to improve its resilience to drought and plan for a more sustainable water future. This issue brief, produced in collaboration with the Natural Resources Defense Council, is a statewide analysis of the potential for improved efficiency in agricultural and urban water use, water reuse and recycling, and increased capturing of local rainwater.

Moving Toward a Multiple Benefits Approach for Water Management

Author: Diringer et al., (2019)
Geography:
Level of Detail: , , , ,

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , , , , , , , , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , ,


The Pacific Institute’s report, Moving Toward a Multiple Benefits Approach for Water Management, proposes a framework for systematically identifying and incorporating the multiple benefits and trade-offs of water management strategies into decision-making processes. The framework can help users broaden support for a policy or project; identify opportunities to share costs among project beneficiaries; minimize adverse and unintended consequences; optimize the investment of time, money, and other resources; and increase transparency associated with water management decisions.

Life cycle based analysis of demands and emissions for residential water-using appliances

Author: Lee & Tansel, (2012)
Geography:
Level of Detail:

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , , ,


Life cycle based analysis of demands and emissions for residential water-using appliances focuses on the indirect consumption and environmental impacts from end-use water demand of household appliances. It quantifies the energy and greenhouse gas emissions from three residential water-using appliances using life-cycle analysis.

The value of public and private green spaces under water restrictions

Author: MacDonald et al., (2010)
Geography:
Level of Detail:

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , ,


The value of public and private green spaces under water restrictions analyzes the economic impact of outdoor watering restrictions on private and public landscapes. The results show that outdoor watering restrictions do not have an impact on the value of private landscapes, but may have implications for public landscape usage.

Methods to Assess Co-Benefits of California Climate Investments: Water Supply and Availability

Author: Einstein & Litke, Center for Resource Efficient Communities, UC-Berkeley (2017)
Geography:
Level of Detail: , ,

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , , , , , , , ,


Methods to Assess Co-benefits of California Climate Investments: Water Supply and Availability is a literature review of the different methodologies and approaches to quantifying the water supply and availability benefits from California Climate Investment projects. California Climate Investments are a broad group of projects being pursued across the state to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, such as wetland restoration and urban tree planting. While the literature review is targeted at California projects, some of the information provided could be applicable more broadly in the U.S.

Co-benefits Assessment Methodology for Water Savings

Author: California Air Resources Board (2018)
Geography:
Level of Detail:

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , , , , , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , ,


Co-benefits Assessment Methodology for Water Savings presents three different water co-benefit assessment methods for three types of projects from the California Climate Investments. The three project types are agricultural irrigation, residential, commercial, or institutional water efficiency, and urban landscaping. The assessment methods are presented from a California perspective, however, the same methods could be applied in different locations with appropriate modifications for climate and other relevant factors.

The estimated impact of California’s urban water conservation mandate on electricity consumption and greenhouse gas emissions

Author: Spang, Holguin, & Loge, (2018)
Geography:
Level of Detail: ,

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , ,


In The estimated impact of California’s urban water conservation mandate on electricity consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, Spang et al. use the reported water conservation data to assess how the water utilities have responded to the 2015 California water reduction mandate and to estimate the electricity savings and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions associated with reduced operation of urban water infrastructure systems.

Embedded Energy in Water Studies 1, 2 and 3

Author: California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) (2010)
Geography:
Level of Detail: ,

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , ,


CPUCs Embedded Energy in Water Studies provide a California statewide assessment of energy use by the water sector and energy use by water customers. There are three separate reports, each including supporting appendices and materials, that document methodology, data collection, case studies, and findings of the investigation.

SEEA-Water System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water

Author: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Statistics Division (2012)
Geography:
Level of Detail: ,

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , , , , , , , , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , ,


SEEA-Water System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water is a qualitative and comprehensive framework that aids in the organization of hydrologic and economic information. The goal of the framework is to obtain consistent and comprehensive data collection that will allow for the analysis of natural resource contribution to the economy, and vice versa, the economies impacts on natural resources. The database can be used to inform management decisions, policy, and research in order to protect valuable natural capital globally.

System of National Accounts 2008

Author: European Commission, International Monetary Fund, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), United Nations, The World Bank (2008)
Geography:
Level of Detail: ,

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , , , , , , , , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , ,


System of National Accounts 2008 is a qualitative and comprehensive framework that aids in the organization of economic data from across the globe. The goal of the framework is to provide a consistent and comprehensive economic database that can inform management decisions, policy, and research. The System of National Accounts is created for all countries and therefore accounts for all demographics and stages of economic development. The system also includes a methodology for environmental accounting that focuses on the utilization of natural resources and the pollution of natural resources.

System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012 Central Framework

Author: United Nations, European Union, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Monetary Fund, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), The World Bank (2014)
Geography:
Level of Detail: ,

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , , , , , , , , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , ,


System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012 Central Framework is a qualitative and comprehensive framework that aids in the organization of environmental and economic data from across the globe. The goal of the framework is to provide a consistent and comprehensive database that will allow for the analysis of natural resource contribution to the economy, and vice versa, the economies impacts on natural resources. The framework approaches data collection from an economic perspective, including information for natural inputs, environmental assets, and residual flows; the complementary document, System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012 Experimental Ecosystem Accounting, approaches data collection from an environmental perspective. The database can be used to inform management decisions, policy, and research, as well as track progress towards global sustainability goals.

System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012 Experimental Ecosystem Accounting

Author: United Nations, European Union, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Bank Group (2014)
Geography:
Level of Detail: ,

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , , , , , , , , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , ,


System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012 Experimental Ecosystem Accounting is an addition to the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012 Central Framework. Where the Central Framework approaches data collection from an economic perspective, the Experimental Ecosystem Accounting framework approaches data collection from an environmental perspective and analyzes its interactions with the economy. The Central Framework and Experimental Ecosystem Accounting frameworks can be used in conjunction to provide a comprehensive description of the interactions between the environment, economy, and human activity.

Determining the Economic Value of Water: Concepts and Methods

Author: Young & Loomis, (2014)
Geography:
Level of Detail: ,

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , , , , , , , , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , , , ,


Determining the Economic Value of Water: Concepts and Methods provides a comprehensive summary of economic valuation techniques used for water management strategies. The book includes a framework for economic valuation of the primary and secondary benefits of water investments, including improved water quality, enhanced fish habitats, and recreation benefits. Non-market valuation techniques are discussed for the valuation of difficult to quantify public benefits. The book also includes an analysis of the various valuation techniques, examining specific applications, limitations, and advantages of each technique.

Progress Toward Establishing a National Assessment of Water Availability and Use

Author: Alley et al., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (2013)
Geography:
Level of Detail:

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , , , , , , , , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: ,


Progress Toward Establishing a National Assessment of Water Availability and Use discusses the need for a National Water Census within the United States. The goal of the Water Census would be to provide a comprehensive database that would inform managers and decision-makers on the water availability and water quality in the nation. The report illustrates the framework through various regional and national applications. The report also asserts that in order for a Water Census to be successful, there must be sufficient collaboration between organizations and agencies.

FLOWER: Framework for Long-Term, Whole-System, Equity-Based Reflection

Author: Climate Interactive (2017)
Geography:
Level of Detail:

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , , , , , , , , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , ,


FLOWER: Framework for Long-Term, Whole-System, Equity-Based Reflection is a decision-making framework for “multisolving,” or systematically examining climate solutions that provide multiple benefits. Areas that are examined include “Climate Protection” at the center, and petals of Food and Water; Jobs and Assets; Health, Well-being, and Safety; Connection; Energy Industry and Mobility; and Resilience. The shading on the petals aims to illustrate the equity aspect of a project, with uniform shading signifying complete equity, heavy shading on the outer edge of the petal signifying benefits only to marginalized populations, and heavy shading in the center of the petal signifying benefits for only the more privileged members of society.

Sustainability and the U.S. EPA, Chapter 4: Sustainability Assessment and Management: Process, Tools, and Indicators

Author: National Research Council (2011)
Geography:
Level of Detail:

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , , , , , , , , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , ,


Sustainability Assessment and Management: Process, Tools, and Indicators provides an overview on how to approach sustainability assessment and management. The book chapter includes guidance on 1) problem definition, planning and scoping, 2) selected sustainability tools and their applications, 3) tradeoff analysis, 4) communication of results to decision makers, and 5) stakeholder engagement and collaboration. The section on sustainability tools includes discussions on various environmental assessment techniques including risk assessment, life-cycle assessment, benefit-cost analysis, ecosystem services valuation, integrated assessment models, sustainability impact assessment, and environmental justice tools.

Multi-criteria decision analysis in environmental sciences: Ten years of applications and trends

Author: Huang, Keisler, & Linkov, (2011)
Geography:
Level of Detail:

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , , , , , , , , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , ,


Multi-criteria decision analysis in environmental sciences: Ten years of applications and trends examines the use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) for environmental applications within the past decade. The literature review revealed that there has been significant growth in MCDA application within environmental practices. The review also found parallels between applications of MCDA across similar projects, suggesting that MCDA has been applied consistently within cases reviewed.

Impacts of Urban Water Conservation Strategies on Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Health: Southern California as a Case Study

Author: Sokolow et al., (2016)
Geography:
Level of Detail:

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , , , , , , , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , , , , , , , ,


Impacts of Urban Water Conservation Strategies on Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Health: Southern California as a Case Study expands on a 2014 health impact assessment of California’s urban water conservation strategies to evaluate the impacts of two possible conservation approaches: banning landscape irrigation and expanding alternative water sources (e.g. recycled water). Findings show that expanding alternative water sources can have a highly positive impact on public health.

Smart Water Management for Business Growth: Integrating Water Risk into Business Decision Making

Author: Ecolab Inc. (2017)
Geography:
Level of Detail:

Availability:

Water Management Strategies:

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , ,


This is the white paper published by Ecolab in conjunction with the Water Risk Monetizer tool. The report contains an explanation of the tool, an evolution of water risk analysis, the water risk framework applied in the tool, methodology, and limitations.

Sustaining California Agriculture in an Uncertain Future

Author: Cooley, Christian-Smith, & Gleick, Pacific Institute (2009)
Geography:
Level of Detail:

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,


Sustaining California Agriculture in an Uncertain Future examines the potential for agricultural efficiency in California. The report qualitatively and quantitatively explores the potential for water conservation and efficiency under the following management strategies: 1) efficient irrigation technology, 2) improved irrigation scheduling, and 3) regulated deficit irrigation. All three options show significant water savings as well as provide various co-benefits including, reduced water and energy costs, improved crop quality and yield,improved soil health, reduced vulnerability to drought, increased revenues, improved water quality, improved quantity and timing of instream flows, and fish and wildlife benefits.

An Analysis of the Energy Intensity of Water in California: Providing a Basis for Quantification of Energy Savings from Water System Improvements

Author: Wilkinson et al., (2006)
Geography:
Level of Detail: ,

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , , ,


An Analysis of the Energy Intensity of Water in California: Providing a Basis for Quantification of Energy Savings from Water System Improvements analyzes water-related energy use in California. The report examines energy inputs to water systems for: 1) primary water extraction, conveyance, and storage, 2) treatment and distribution within service areas, 3) on-site water pumping, treatment, and thermal inputs, and 4) wastewater collection, treatment, and discharge. The report concludes that “with better information regarding the energy implications of water use, public policy and combined investment and management strategies between energy, water, and wastewater agencies and utilities can be improved.” The benefits cited for these energy savings include avoided capital and operating costs, reduced burden on rate-payers, improved distribution of capital, and environmental benefits.

One Water Roadmap: The Sustainable Management of Life’s Most Essential Resource

Author: US Water Alliance (2016)
Geography:
Level of Detail: ,

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , , , , , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , ,


One Water Roadmap: The Sustainable Management of Life’s Most Essential Resource provides a comprehensive “One Water” framework for the United States. The report is divided into three sections: 1) a discussion on the current landscape of water issues, 2) a discussion of the vision and foundational features of the One Water approach, and 3) a discussion of current successes in utilizing the One Water approach and further improvements. The qualitative framework encompasses a broad range of management strategies and provides guidance for all sectors.

CUWCC Direct Utility Avoided Cost Model and Environmental Benefits Model Download Page

Author: Alliance for Water Efficiency (2007)
Geography:
Level of Detail: ,

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , ,


The CUWCC Direct Utility Avoided Cost Model and Environmental Benefits Model is a tool developed by the California Urban Water Conservation Council (CUWCC) in order to improve water use efficiency. The model uses the avoided cost economic valuation method in order to estimate the potential savings of water use efficiency improvements. The resource provides a downloadable version of the valuation tool, the methodology, and examples of the tool being utilized.

WaterSET

Author: Hazen & Sawyer, (2016)
Geography:
Level of Detail:

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , , , , , , , , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , ,


WaterSET is a triple bottom line assessment tool developed by WRF (Reuse-14-03) that compares different water supply options to direct potable reuse (DPR). The report, ‘Methodology for a Comprehensive Analysis (Triple Bottom Line) of Alternative Water Supply Projects Compared to Direct Potable Reuse’, describes the methodology behind the WaterSET tool. While the WaterSET tool is more oriented towards urban contexts, many of the principles and benefits associated with the water supplies assessed in Reuse-14-03 are relevant to agricultural contexts (Reuse-16-06). The report and tools developed as part of Reuse-14-03 were recently released and are currently being reviewed by the Reuse-16-06 project team.

Integrated Water Management Resource Center

Author: American Rivers (N/A)
Geography:
Level of Detail:

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , , , , , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , ,


Integrated Water Management Water Resources Center is a guide to American Rivers’ integrated water resources management, or ‘One Water’ approach. The American Rivers’ integrated approach includes a circular process of 1) identification of the approach, 2) understanding co-benefits, 3) identification of the suitable tools, 4) development of a stakeholder strategy, 5) implementation of the strategy, and 6) monitoring, evaluating, and adapting. This approach involves communication and collaboration throughout the entire process. The website contains numerous links to documents, websites, and video files that help support the many aspects of an integrated water resources management approach.

Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Urban Water Conservation: Final Report

Author: Coughlin et al., Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, California Urban Watershed Council (2006)
Geography:
Level of Detail: ,

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,


Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Urban Water Conservation Final Report presents a method for valuing the environmental benefits of water conservation and efficiency. Water savings of a particular water conservation strategy are represented by the reduction in water demand, as well as the resulting co-benefits, including enhanced fish habitats, increased recreational opportunities, and improved water quality as a result of wetland filtration. The report provides a methodology for monetizing these environmental benefits so as to provide utilities with a method for comparing the benefits and costs of various best management practices.

Water Risk Monetizer

Author: Ecolab Inc. (2017)
Geography:
Level of Detail:

Availability:

Water Management Strategies:

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , ,


Water Risk Monetizer is a tool developed by Ecolab Inc. that assesses water-related business risks. Using local basin data and economic analysis techniques, the tool provides the user with risk metrics for incoming water quantity and quality, as well as outgoing water quality. The purpose of this tool is to inform companies on their water-related risks in order to encourage investment into water conservation. The tool is available online and is free to use.

Climatic consequences of adopting drought-tolerant vegetation over Los Angeles as a response to California drought

Author: Vahmani & Ban-Weiss, (2016)
Geography:
Level of Detail: ,

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , ,


Climatic consequences of adopting drought tolerant vegetation over Los Angeles as a response to California drought utilized a regional climate model to analyze the impacts of drought-tolerant vegetation in Los Angeles. The results revealed that drought-tolerant vegetation contributed to a daytime warming of 1.9 degrees Celsius, largely due to decreases in irrigation, and a nighttime cooling of 3.2 degrees Celsius, due to differences in soil thermodynamics and heat exchange. The report concludes that the greater magnitude of the nighttime cooling could counterbalance the warming effects during the day.

Water conservation benefits of urban heat mitigation

Author: Vahmani & Jones, (2017)
Geography:
Level of Detail: ,

Availability:

Water Management Strategies: , , ,

Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: , , , , , , , , , ,


Water conservation benefits of urban heat mitigation examines urban heat mitigation strategies, such as cool roofs, and the impacts on water conservation in California. The study shows that while cool roofs provide significant cooling benefits and life cycle cost savings, they also provide other water-related benefits including decreased outdoor water use by reducing evaporation and irrigation practices. The report argues that cool roofs provide a solution for multiple sectors within California.