63 Multi-Benefit Resources


Hydro-economic models: Concepts, design, applications, and future prospects

Author: Harou et al., University College London (2009)
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Hydro-economic models: Concepts, design, applications, and future prospects discusses the role of economic valuation in water demand. The paper analyzed over 80 hydro-economic models to evaluate the ability of current models to include spatial and temporal components of water systems. This allows water managers to determine the value in decreasing system inefficiencies.

Conservation Gateway

Author: The Nature Conservancy (N/A)
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The Conservation Gateway provides resources to support conservation practices in water management. The gateway provides a variety of resources from funding for freshwater conservation to protocols on water quality assessment. The resources are divided between: Corporate Water Use, Environmental Flows, Water Infrastructure, Water Quality, Habitat Protection and Restoration, Financial Solutions, Saving Great Rivers, and Setting Freshwater Priorities.

The City Water Resilience Approach

Author: Fletcher et al., Arup (2019)
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The City Water Resilience Approach considers how cities can create resilient water management plans in the face of changing city populations and climate. The report goes through a multistep approach and addresses potential issues between different stakeholders as well as other barriers. It focuses on providing the increasing urban population with safe, resilient water resources and protection from water related disasters.

Bringing Water and Land Use Together

Author: Local Government Commission (2019)
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Bringing Water and Land Use Together discusses Integrated Regional Water Management. This strategy is similar to the multi-benefit framework and integrates multiple groups of stakeholders to find mutually beneficial solutions to water management issues. The report highlights case studies throughout California that have adopted different integrated management approaches. It provides lists of recommendations for different stakeholders attempting to engage in integrated management.

Landscape Performance Series

Author: Landscape Architecture Foundation (N/A)
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The Landscape Performance Series is a compilation of case studies, fact sheets, and a Benefits Toolkit, to support sustainable landscape design. It is available for designers, agencies, and advocates to help evaluate performance, show value, and make the case for landscapes.

Landscape Performance Series: Benefits Toolkit

Author: Landscape Architecture Foundation (N/A)
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The Benefits Toolkit, housed in the Landscape Performance Series, lists calculators and tools that directly help with quantifying the benefits of landscapes. Users can filter results by “Landscape Performance Benefit” including several options for water-related benefits.

Water Funds Toolbox

Author: The Nature Conservancy (N/A)
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The Water Fund Toolbox provides a wide variety of resources, case studies, tools, etc. for groups seeking to create or advance the work of a Water Fund. A Water Fund is an organization that designs and enhances financial and governance mechanisms which unite public, private, and civil society stakeholders around a common goal to contribute to water security through nature-based solutions and sustainable water management.

The Untapped Potential of California’s Water Supply: Efficiency, Reuse, and Stormwater – Issue Brief

Author: Gleick et al., Pacific Institute, NRDC (2014)
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Increased pressures on California’s water supply, including from population growth and intense periods of drought exacerbated by climate change, are leading to the overuse of surface water and groundwater. But with existing technology and conservation methods, the state can take vital steps to improve its resilience to drought and plan for a more sustainable water future. This issue brief, produced in collaboration with the Natural Resources Defense Council, is a statewide analysis of the potential for improved efficiency in agricultural and urban water use, water reuse and recycling, and increased capturing of local rainwater.

Just green enough: contesting environmental gentrification in Greenpoint, Brooklyn

Author: Curran & Hamilton, DePaul University (2012)
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Just green enough: contesting environmental gentrification in Greenpoint, Brooklyn is a case study showing the benefits of partnerships between developers, environmentalists, and community members. While development can lead to displacement, there is a space for strategic development that does not negatively alter the neighborhood. Focusing on people’s health instead of aesthetics can protect the character of the neighborhood.

An Equitable Water Future

Author: US Water Alliance (2017)
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An Equitable Water Future highlights the main challenges and main solutions in water equity in the United States. There are 1.4 million Americans without access to modern plumbing. Affordability can also contribute to water inequity, the bottom 20% can pay 1/5 of their income on water bills. Communities might have disproportionate impacts from historical water quality threats such as nuclear testing or lead pipes. Examples of projects and organizations that are addressing these equity issues are provided. Equity and climate resilience are also discussed.

Drinking Water and Wastewater Utility Customer Assistance Programs

Author: EPA (2016)
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Drinking Water and Wastewater Utility Customer Assistance Programs (CAPs) is a synopsis of utilities across the nation performing customer assistance programs. Bill discount, flexible terms, and temporary assistance are common programs. The report details specific examples of each of these CAPs and examines issues with the scope and targeting of CAPs.

Economic Benefits: Metics and Methods for Landscape Performance Assessment

Author: Wang et al., Utah State University (2016)
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The Economic Benefits: Metrics and Methods for Landscape Performance Assessment presents a method and standard metrics for assessing the economic benefits of landscapes. This method and the associated metrics can be used to increase the scientific rigor of landscape architecture and to help achieve high(er) levels of sustainability in the built environment. Three test cases are used to demonstrate the utility of the method.

Moving Toward a Multiple Benefits Approach for Water Management

Author: Diringer et al., (2019)
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The Pacific Institute’s report, Moving Toward a Multiple Benefits Approach for Water Management, proposes a framework for systematically identifying and incorporating the multiple benefits and trade-offs of water management strategies into decision-making processes. The framework can help users broaden support for a policy or project; identify opportunities to share costs among project beneficiaries; minimize adverse and unintended consequences; optimize the investment of time, money, and other resources; and increase transparency associated with water management decisions.

Life cycle based analysis of demands and emissions for residential water-using appliances

Author: Lee & Tansel, (2012)
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Life cycle based analysis of demands and emissions for residential water-using appliances focuses on the indirect consumption and environmental impacts from end-use water demand of household appliances. It quantifies the energy and greenhouse gas emissions from three residential water-using appliances using life-cycle analysis.

The value of public and private green spaces under water restrictions

Author: MacDonald et al., (2010)
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The value of public and private green spaces under water restrictions analyzes the economic impact of outdoor watering restrictions on private and public landscapes. The results show that outdoor watering restrictions do not have an impact on the value of private landscapes, but may have implications for public landscape usage.

Methods to Assess Co-Benefits of California Climate Investments: Water Supply and Availability

Author: Einstein & Litke, Center for Resource Efficient Communities, UC-Berkeley (2017)
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Methods to Assess Co-benefits of California Climate Investments: Water Supply and Availability is a literature review of the different methodologies and approaches to quantifying the water supply and availability benefits from California Climate Investment projects. California Climate Investments are a broad group of projects being pursued across the state to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, such as wetland restoration and urban tree planting. While the literature review is targeted at California projects, some of the information provided could be applicable more broadly in the U.S.

Co-benefits Assessment Methodology for Water Savings

Author: California Air Resources Board (2018)
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Co-benefits Assessment Methodology for Water Savings presents three different water co-benefit assessment methods for three types of projects from the California Climate Investments. The three project types are agricultural irrigation, residential, commercial, or institutional water efficiency, and urban landscaping. The assessment methods are presented from a California perspective, however, the same methods could be applied in different locations with appropriate modifications for climate and other relevant factors.

The estimated impact of California’s urban water conservation mandate on electricity consumption and greenhouse gas emissions

Author: Spang, Holguin, & Loge, (2018)
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In The estimated impact of California’s urban water conservation mandate on electricity consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, Spang et al. use the reported water conservation data to assess how the water utilities have responded to the 2015 California water reduction mandate and to estimate the electricity savings and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions associated with reduced operation of urban water infrastructure systems.

Embedded Energy in Water Studies 1, 2 and 3

Author: California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) (2010)
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CPUCs Embedded Energy in Water Studies provide a California statewide assessment of energy use by the water sector and energy use by water customers. There are three separate reports, each including supporting appendices and materials, that document methodology, data collection, case studies, and findings of the investigation.

Progress Toward Establishing a National Assessment of Water Availability and Use

Author: Alley et al., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (2013)
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Progress Toward Establishing a National Assessment of Water Availability and Use discusses the need for a National Water Census within the United States. The goal of the Water Census would be to provide a comprehensive database that would inform managers and decision-makers on the water availability and water quality in the nation. The report illustrates the framework through various regional and national applications. The report also asserts that in order for a Water Census to be successful, there must be sufficient collaboration between organizations and agencies.

FLOWER: Framework for Long-Term, Whole-System, Equity-Based Reflection

Author: Climate Interactive (2017)
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FLOWER: Framework for Long-Term, Whole-System, Equity-Based Reflection is a decision-making framework for “multisolving,” or systematically examining climate solutions that provide multiple benefits. Areas that are examined include “Climate Protection” at the center, and petals of Food and Water; Jobs and Assets; Health, Well-being, and Safety; Connection; Energy Industry and Mobility; and Resilience. The shading on the petals aims to illustrate the equity aspect of a project, with uniform shading signifying complete equity, heavy shading on the outer edge of the petal signifying benefits only to marginalized populations, and heavy shading in the center of the petal signifying benefits for only the more privileged members of society.

Sustainability and the U.S. EPA, Chapter 4: Sustainability Assessment and Management: Process, Tools, and Indicators

Author: National Research Council (2011)
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Sustainability Assessment and Management: Process, Tools, and Indicators provides an overview on how to approach sustainability assessment and management. The book chapter includes guidance on 1) problem definition, planning and scoping, 2) selected sustainability tools and their applications, 3) tradeoff analysis, 4) communication of results to decision makers, and 5) stakeholder engagement and collaboration. The section on sustainability tools includes discussions on various environmental assessment techniques including risk assessment, life-cycle assessment, benefit-cost analysis, ecosystem services valuation, integrated assessment models, sustainability impact assessment, and environmental justice tools.

Multi-criteria decision analysis in environmental sciences: Ten years of applications and trends

Author: Huang, Keisler, & Linkov, (2011)
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Multi-criteria decision analysis in environmental sciences: Ten years of applications and trends examines the use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) for environmental applications within the past decade. The literature review revealed that there has been significant growth in MCDA application within environmental practices. The review also found parallels between applications of MCDA across similar projects, suggesting that MCDA has been applied consistently within cases reviewed.

Impacts of Urban Water Conservation Strategies on Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Health: Southern California as a Case Study

Author: Sokolow et al., (2016)
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Impacts of Urban Water Conservation Strategies on Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Health: Southern California as a Case Study expands on a 2014 health impact assessment of California’s urban water conservation strategies to evaluate the impacts of two possible conservation approaches: banning landscape irrigation and expanding alternative water sources (e.g. recycled water). Findings show that expanding alternative water sources can have a highly positive impact on public health.

SEEA-Water System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water

Author: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Statistics Division (2012)
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SEEA-Water System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water is a qualitative and comprehensive framework that aids in the organization of hydrologic and economic information. The goal of the framework is to obtain consistent and comprehensive data collection that will allow for the analysis of natural resource contribution to the economy, and vice versa, the economies impacts on natural resources. The database can be used to inform management decisions, policy, and research in order to protect valuable natural capital globally.

System of National Accounts 2008

Author: European Commission, International Monetary Fund, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), United Nations, The World Bank (2008)
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System of National Accounts 2008 is a qualitative and comprehensive framework that aids in the organization of economic data from across the globe. The goal of the framework is to provide a consistent and comprehensive economic database that can inform management decisions, policy, and research. The System of National Accounts is created for all countries and therefore accounts for all demographics and stages of economic development. The system also includes a methodology for environmental accounting that focuses on the utilization of natural resources and the pollution of natural resources.

System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012 Central Framework

Author: United Nations, European Union, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Monetary Fund, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), The World Bank (2014)
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System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012 Central Framework is a qualitative and comprehensive framework that aids in the organization of environmental and economic data from across the globe. The goal of the framework is to provide a consistent and comprehensive database that will allow for the analysis of natural resource contribution to the economy, and vice versa, the economies impacts on natural resources. The framework approaches data collection from an economic perspective, including information for natural inputs, environmental assets, and residual flows; the complementary document, System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012 Experimental Ecosystem Accounting, approaches data collection from an environmental perspective. The database can be used to inform management decisions, policy, and research, as well as track progress towards global sustainability goals.

System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012 Experimental Ecosystem Accounting

Author: United Nations, European Union, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Bank Group (2014)
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System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012 Experimental Ecosystem Accounting is an addition to the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012 Central Framework. Where the Central Framework approaches data collection from an economic perspective, the Experimental Ecosystem Accounting framework approaches data collection from an environmental perspective and analyzes its interactions with the economy. The Central Framework and Experimental Ecosystem Accounting frameworks can be used in conjunction to provide a comprehensive description of the interactions between the environment, economy, and human activity.

Determining the Economic Value of Water: Concepts and Methods

Author: Young & Loomis, (2014)
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Determining the Economic Value of Water: Concepts and Methods provides a comprehensive summary of economic valuation techniques used for water management strategies. The book includes a framework for economic valuation of the primary and secondary benefits of water investments, including improved water quality, enhanced fish habitats, and recreation benefits. Non-market valuation techniques are discussed for the valuation of difficult to quantify public benefits. The book also includes an analysis of the various valuation techniques, examining specific applications, limitations, and advantages of each technique.

Integrated Water Management Resource Center

Author: American Rivers (N/A)
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Integrated Water Management Water Resources Center is a guide to American Rivers’ integrated water resources management, or ‘One Water’ approach. The American Rivers’ integrated approach includes a circular process of 1) identification of the approach, 2) understanding co-benefits, 3) identification of the suitable tools, 4) development of a stakeholder strategy, 5) implementation of the strategy, and 6) monitoring, evaluating, and adapting. This approach involves communication and collaboration throughout the entire process. The website contains numerous links to documents, websites, and video files that help support the many aspects of an integrated water resources management approach.

Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Urban Water Conservation: Final Report

Author: Coughlin et al., Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, California Urban Watershed Council (2006)
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Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Urban Water Conservation Final Report presents a method for valuing the environmental benefits of water conservation and efficiency. Water savings of a particular water conservation strategy are represented by the reduction in water demand, as well as the resulting co-benefits, including enhanced fish habitats, increased recreational opportunities, and improved water quality as a result of wetland filtration. The report provides a methodology for monetizing these environmental benefits so as to provide utilities with a method for comparing the benefits and costs of various best management practices.

Water Risk Monetizer

Author: Ecolab Inc. (2017)
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Water Risk Monetizer is a tool developed by Ecolab Inc. that assesses water-related business risks. Using local basin data and economic analysis techniques, the tool provides the user with risk metrics for incoming water quantity and quality, as well as outgoing water quality. The purpose of this tool is to inform companies on their water-related risks in order to encourage investment into water conservation. The tool is available online and is free to use.

Smart Water Management for Business Growth: Integrating Water Risk into Business Decision Making

Author: Ecolab Inc. (2017)
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This is the white paper published by Ecolab in conjunction with the Water Risk Monetizer tool. The report contains an explanation of the tool, an evolution of water risk analysis, the water risk framework applied in the tool, methodology, and limitations.

Sustaining California Agriculture in an Uncertain Future

Author: Cooley, Christian-Smith, & Gleick, Pacific Institute (2009)
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Sustaining California Agriculture in an Uncertain Future examines the potential for agricultural efficiency in California. The report qualitatively and quantitatively explores the potential for water conservation and efficiency under the following management strategies: 1) efficient irrigation technology, 2) improved irrigation scheduling, and 3) regulated deficit irrigation. All three options show significant water savings as well as provide various co-benefits including, reduced water and energy costs, improved crop quality and yield,improved soil health, reduced vulnerability to drought, increased revenues, improved water quality, improved quantity and timing of instream flows, and fish and wildlife benefits.

An Analysis of the Energy Intensity of Water in California: Providing a Basis for Quantification of Energy Savings from Water System Improvements

Author: Wilkinson et al., (2006)
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An Analysis of the Energy Intensity of Water in California: Providing a Basis for Quantification of Energy Savings from Water System Improvements analyzes water-related energy use in California. The report examines energy inputs to water systems for: 1) primary water extraction, conveyance, and storage, 2) treatment and distribution within service areas, 3) on-site water pumping, treatment, and thermal inputs, and 4) wastewater collection, treatment, and discharge. The report concludes that “with better information regarding the energy implications of water use, public policy and combined investment and management strategies between energy, water, and wastewater agencies and utilities can be improved.” The benefits cited for these energy savings include avoided capital and operating costs, reduced burden on rate-payers, improved distribution of capital, and environmental benefits.

One Water Roadmap: The Sustainable Management of Life’s Most Essential Resource

Author: US Water Alliance (2016)
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One Water Roadmap: The Sustainable Management of Life’s Most Essential Resource provides a comprehensive “One Water” framework for the United States. The report is divided into three sections: 1) a discussion on the current landscape of water issues, 2) a discussion of the vision and foundational features of the One Water approach, and 3) a discussion of current successes in utilizing the One Water approach and further improvements. The qualitative framework encompasses a broad range of management strategies and provides guidance for all sectors.

CUWCC Direct Utility Avoided Cost Model and Environmental Benefits Model Download Page

Author: Alliance for Water Efficiency (2007)
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The CUWCC Direct Utility Avoided Cost Model and Environmental Benefits Model is a tool developed by the California Urban Water Conservation Council (CUWCC) in order to improve water use efficiency. The model uses the avoided cost economic valuation method in order to estimate the potential savings of water use efficiency improvements. The resource provides a downloadable version of the valuation tool, the methodology, and examples of the tool being utilized.

WaterSET

Author: Hazen & Sawyer, (2016)
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WaterSET is a triple bottom line assessment tool developed by WRF (Reuse-14-03) that compares different water supply options to direct potable reuse (DPR). The report, ‘Methodology for a Comprehensive Analysis (Triple Bottom Line) of Alternative Water Supply Projects Compared to Direct Potable Reuse’, describes the methodology behind the WaterSET tool. While the WaterSET tool is more oriented towards urban contexts, many of the principles and benefits associated with the water supplies assessed in Reuse-14-03 are relevant to agricultural contexts (Reuse-16-06). The report and tools developed as part of Reuse-14-03 were recently released and are currently being reviewed by the Reuse-16-06 project team.

What’s getting in the way of a “One Water” approach to water services planning and management?

Author: Mukheibir, Howe, & Gallet, (2014)
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What’s Getting in the way of ‘One Water’ approach to water services planning and management? presents findings of research on the barriers and challenges encountered by water agencies and institutions on adopting a ‘One Water’ approach to water services planning and management. It categorizes the drivers and challenges into three groups: the “push of the present,” the “pull of the future,” and the “weight of the past.” Five key areas that presented challenges were identified through a literature review; these included legislation and regulations, economics and finance, planning and collaboration, culture and capacity, and citizen engagement.

Leveraging Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture via Desalination: Evidence from a Macro-Data Case Study in Israel

Author: Raveh & Ben-Gal, (2018)
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Leveraging Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture via Desalination: Evidence from a Macro-Data Case Study in Israel examines the effects of desalinated water on agricultural crops in Israel. The study presents data on salt levels in different agricultural crops before and after watering with desalination plant water. The results showed measurable and significant decreases in sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), and magnesium (Mg) compared to when the crops were watered using irrigation. This reduction of salts in the crops provides a benefit because the high levels of salts in irrigated water sources was causing crop health issues.

Climatic consequences of adopting drought-tolerant vegetation over Los Angeles as a response to California drought

Author: Vahmani & Ban-Weiss, (2016)
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Climatic consequences of adopting drought tolerant vegetation over Los Angeles as a response to California drought utilized a regional climate model to analyze the impacts of drought-tolerant vegetation in Los Angeles. The results revealed that drought-tolerant vegetation contributed to a daytime warming of 1.9 degrees Celsius, largely due to decreases in irrigation, and a nighttime cooling of 3.2 degrees Celsius, due to differences in soil thermodynamics and heat exchange. The report concludes that the greater magnitude of the nighttime cooling could counterbalance the warming effects during the day.

Water conservation benefits of urban heat mitigation

Author: Vahmani & Jones, (2017)
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Water conservation benefits of urban heat mitigation examines urban heat mitigation strategies, such as cool roofs, and the impacts on water conservation in California. The study shows that while cool roofs provide significant cooling benefits and life cycle cost savings, they also provide other water-related benefits including decreased outdoor water use by reducing evaporation and irrigation practices. The report argues that cool roofs provide a solution for multiple sectors within California.

Water Efficiency Rating Score (WERS)

Author: The Green Builder® Coalition (N/A)
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The Water Efficiency Rating Score (WERS) is a tool for predicting water use in new and existing properties. The tool measures indoor water use, including water used in toilets, sinks, clothes washers, showers, and structural waste (water that is wasted when waiting for water to heat up), and scores water use performance on a scale from 0 to 100 (0 being the desired performance). The goal of the tool is to provide validated water use performance scores in order to encourage water conservation efforts.

Sustainable Rivers Project

Author: The Nature Conservancy, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (2011)
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The Sustainable Rivers Project aims to enhance river habitats through modification of dam operations. The report includes eight case studies on sustainable river projects conducted throughout the United States. The benefits of these river preservation strategies include improved water quality, flood protection, enhanced fish habitats, increased tourism and recreation, and improved community livability and aesthetics. The Sustainable Rivers Projects also works to encourage community engagement, particularly by those living on or near the rivers, by providing outreach, workshops, and meetings.

Institutional Issues for Integrated One Water Management Snapshot Case Studies

Author: Water Research Foundation (WRF), Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF), Water Research Australia (2015)
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Institutional Issues for Integrated One Water Management Snapshot Case Studies provides twenty-five case studies that provide practical examples of how agencies and communities worked through institutional barriers. The institutional barriers identified in the report fall under the following categories: 1) planning and partnerships, 2) legislation and regulation, 3) economics and finance, 4) culture, knowledge, and capacity, and 5) citizen and stakeholder engagement. The goal of this report is to provide solutions to these barriers so that communities, organizations, and governments can practice a more integrated and sustainable approach to water resource management.

OneWaterSF

Author: San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) (2018)
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OneWaterSF is an integrated systems approach adopted by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) that aims to provide greater water and energy resource reliability and resiliency, water infrastructure optimization, and contributions to the livability and sustainability of San Francisco and the surrounding Bay Area.The source contains examples of OneWaterSF programs in San Francisco, including a Water Reuse Program, a Resource Recovery and Solar Energy Program, a Stormwater Management Ordinance, and Westside Recycled Water Project and San Francisco Groundwater Project. The benefits cited in these projects and programs include water and energy savings, stormwater management, restoration of watersheds and ecosystems, improvements to community aesthetics, and increased educational opportunities.

One Water Plan

Author: Santa Clara Valley Water District (2017)
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The One Water Plan for the Santa Clara Valley Water District integrates water supply, water quality, and flood control initiatives to promote overall system efficiency. The One Water approach to water resource management is set by the 1) vision, 2) goals, 3) objectives, 4) strategies, and 5) project, program, policy, and partnership. The goals for implementing this integrated stormwater approach include improved water supply reliability and water quality, ecological sustainability, resilient baylands, and community collaboration. This plan acts as a guide for management decisions within the five major basins in Santa Clara County: Guadalupe, Coyote, Uvas/Llagas, Lower Peninsula, and West Valley.

Agricultural Water Conservation and Efficiency Potential in California

Author: NRDC, Pacific Institute (2014)
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Agricultural Water Conservation and Efficiency Potential in California outlines the benefits of improving agricultural efficiency in California. The benefits cited include reduced consumptive use, improved water quality and instream flow, energy savings, increased yields, improved crop quality, reduced fertilizer, water, and energy costs, improved reliability of existing supplies, management flexibility, improved downstream water quality, and enhanced recreation.

Integrated Urban Water Model (IUWM)

Author: One Water Solutions Institute, Colorado State University (N/A)
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Integrated Urban Water Model (IUWM) is a planning tool for urban planners and water managers considering water savings from indoor and outdoor conservation through utilization of alternative water sources including greywater, stormwater, and reclaimed water. The tool utilizes lot size, land use designations, climate information, and soil characteristics to evaluate the impact of land use configurations, climate changes, conservation programs, and alternative water sources on water demands.

Energy Down the Drain: The Hidden Costs of California’s Water Supply

Author: Cohen, Nelson, & Wolff, NRDC, Pacific Institute (2004)
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Energy Down the Drain: The Hidden Costs of California’s Water Supply analyzes the connections between power and water resources in California. The report presents several key findings: 1) water conservation lowers energy use and energy bills, 2) water recycling is a highly energy efficient water source, 3) retiring agricultural land may increase energy use if the water is transferred to other agricultural or urban uses, 4) Retiring agricultural land can save energy if the water is dedicated to the environment, and 5) diverting water above dams costs an enormous amount of power and money. Based on these findings it is recommended that decision makers better integrate energy into water policy decision-making, as well as give water conservation higher priority.