14 Multi-Benefit Resources


Economics of Managed Aquifer Recharge

Author: Maliva, Schlumberger Water Services (2014)
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Economics of Managed Aquifer Recharge suggests methodology for performing a cost benefit analysis for aquifer recharge projects. They list the indicators for determining costs and the methods that could be used to valuing benefits. The risks and uncertainty from performing such analysis are discussed and recommendations are made for implementing aquifer recharge valuations.

How much water can be captured from flood flows to store in depleted aquifers for mitigating floods and droughts? A case study from Texas, US

Author: Yang & Scanlon, The University of Texas at Austin (2019)
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How much water can be captured from flood flows to store in depleted aquifers for mitigating floods and droughts? A case study from Texas, US presents a case study of the opportunity to capture high magnitude flows from 10 major rivers discharging to the Gulf of Mexico and storage potential in nearby depleted aquifers. This modeling study explores managed aquifer recharge with flood flows as an approach to reducing flooding and addressing water supply challenges during droughts.

Embedded Energy in Water Studies 1, 2 and 3

Author: California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) (2010)
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CPUCs Embedded Energy in Water Studies provide a California statewide assessment of energy use by the water sector and energy use by water customers. There are three separate reports, each including supporting appendices and materials, that document methodology, data collection, case studies, and findings of the investigation.

Policy and Economics of Managed Aquifer Recharge and Water Banking

Author: Megdal & Dillion, (2015)
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Policy and Economics of Managed Aquifer Recharge and Water Banking provides a summary of a series of papers on managed aquifer recharge (MAR) programs with excess surface water and recycled water. The paper argues that several limitations to implementation of MAR programs exist, including a deficiency in policies and government frameworks that support MAR programs, as well as limited economic analyses on MAR’s programs. The goal of this summary report is to fill these regulatory and economic gaps so as to encourage MAR program development and implementation.

Green Infrastructure Opportunities and Barriers in the Greater Los Angeles Region

Author: U.S. EPA (2013)
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Green Infrastructure Opportunities and Barriers in the Greater Los Angeles Region analyzes the regulatory barriers to installing green infrastructure in Los Angeles. The types of green infrastructure projects discussed in the report include bioretention cells, bioretention strips/swales, infiltration basins/swales/trenches, planter boxes, constructed wetlands, rainwater capture, permeable pavement, and drywells. The report defines the regulatory landscape for green infrastructure in California, identifies potential for fulfilling multiple regulations and requirements through green infrastructure projects, and lastly, examines the regulatory barriers to green infrastructure implementation.

Just the FACTS: Floods in California

Author: Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC) (2017)
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Just the FACTS: Floods in California highlights key state-wide flooding concerns and solutions for California. The solutions presented include taking new approaches to climate change when assessing flood risk, requiring flood insurance and/or restrictions on development in floodplains, and better integrating flood management projects into overall water management. The final solution points out that flood management can have multiple benefits, including restoration of wetlands and rivers, aquifer recharge, and surface water quality improvements.

Green Infrastructure and Water Supply: A Case Study of the City of Los Angeles

Author: TreePeople, Council for Watershed Health, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (2015)
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Green Infrastructure and Water Supply: A Case Study of the City of Los Angeles presents a two-page report on a modeling effort that identified areas in Los Angeles with potential for groundwater recharge, particularly using stormwater. The results showed potential for recharge to go from the current average of 0.274 AF/acre to an average of 0.97 AF/acre, using low impact development (LID) practices.

Rainwater as a Resource: A Report on Three Sites Demonstrating Sustainable Stormwater Management

Author: TreePeople (2007)
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Rainwater as a Resource: A Report on Three Sites Demonstrating Sustainable Stormwater Management (2007) presents three case studies for stormwater management: (1) single-family, parcel sized greening in South Los Angeles, CA, (2) campus greening at Hillery T. Broadous Elementary School in Pacoima, CA, and (3) campus greening at Open Charter Magnet Elementary School in Westchester, CA. The report includes costs and quantified benefits for tree benefits (tree canopy, carbon storage, carbon sequestration, energy savings), stormwater benefits (runoff reduction, avoided storage), and air pollution benefits (ozone, SO2, NO2, PM10, and CO removal). The report also includes a discussion of additional non-quantified benefits including student health and safety, green waste reuse, and green recreation space.

Stormwater Capture Master Plan

Author: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) (2015)
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Los Angeles’ Department of Water and Power (LADWP) Stormwater Capture Master Plan develops a strategy for long-term stormwater capture potential, examination of projects and programs, estimation of the value of projects with ancillary benefits, and stormwater program and policy implementations in California. Stormwater programs include on-site infiltration, green streets, subregional infiltration, on-site direct use, subregional direct use, and impervious replacement. The multiple benefits cited from increased stormwater capture include groundwater recharge, water conservation, open space alternatives, and improved downstream water quality and peak flow.

LA Sustainable Water Project: Los Angeles River Watershed

Author: Mika et al., UCLA Grand Challenges (2017)
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LA Sustainable Water Project: Los Angeles River Watershed provides an in-depth analysis of the potential future opportunities for water recycling, stormwater capture, groundwater recharge, and water quality improvements along the Los Angeles River. The analysis takes into account current water supply and water quality projects and management practices along the river. The report deduces that more work is needed to better understand optimal levels of stormwater capture and water recycling along the river so as to balance the impact on in-stream flows.

Implications of Future Water Supply Sources for Energy Demands

Author: Cooley & Wilkinson, Pacific Institute, WateReuse Research Foundation (2012)
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Implications of Future Water Supply Sources for Energy Demands describes the Water-Energy Simulator (WESim), an easy-to-use analytical tool for evaluating the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of water management decisions. In this report, energy is considered for (1) source water extraction, (2) water conveyance, (3) water treatment, (4) water distribution, (5) wastewater collection, and (6) wastewater treatment. WESim can include commercial and residential end uses of water and energy requirements for end uses. The report includes case studies utilizing WESim by the Santa Clara Valley Water District and Denver Water.

Water Storage Investment Program Technical Reference

Author: California Water Commission (2016)
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Water Storage Investment Program Technical Reference details the methodology for quantifying the co-benefits or adverse impacts of water storage projects under California’s Water Storage Investment Program (WSIP). The report outlines methods for quantification of various co-benefits and adverse impacts, providing guidance on defining future site conditions, calculating physical changes, monetizing project benefits and costs, comparing benefits and costs, properly allocating costs to beneficiaries, determining cost-effectiveness and public-benefit ratio, and evaluating sources of uncertainty. Projects that quantify public benefits following these methodologies are eligible for California state bond funding to pay for the public benefits.

Adapting to Change: Utility Systems and Declining Flows

Author: California Urban Water Agencies (2017)
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Adapting to Change: Utility Systems and Declining Flows explores the consequences of reduced indoor flows related to conservation on urban water supply systems in California. The report illustrates that demand management through water use efficiency can have many co-benefits including improved drought resilience, improved in-stream flows, reduced or deferred cost of infrastructure, and reduced energy costs; declining flows, however, can negatively impact water distribution, conveyance, wastewater treatment, and recycled water policy. Specific examples and details are presented within the report, including survey and interview data.

California Water Plan, Update 2009, Volume 2: Resource Management Strategies

Author: California Department of Water Resources (2009)
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The California Water Plan presents a guide on water management strategies that can provide multiple benefits both regionally and statewide in California. The management strategies are organized by goals, such as reducing water demand, improving operational efficiency, or improving water quality, and the benefits are categorized under water supply, drought preparedness, water quality, operational flexibility, flood impacts, environmental benefits, energy benefits, recreation, and groundwater overdraft risk. The report also includes guidance on the quantitative analysis of multiple benefits for policymakers and water resource managers.