Energy Implications of Bottled Water

Published in Environmental Research Letters, February 2009

In an article published in the February 2009 edition of the peer-reviewed journal Environmental Research Letters, the Pacific Institute analyses the energy requirements for various stages in bottled water production, including the energy to manufacture the plastic bottles, process the water and the bottles, and transport and cool the final product.

The article, “Energy implications of bottled water” by researchers Peter H. Gleick and Heather Cooley, is the first peer-reviewed analysis of its kind. Gleick and Cooley find bottled water is up to 2000 times more energy-intensive than tap water. Similarly, bottled water that requires long-distance transport is far more energy-intensive than bottled water produced and distributed locally.

To read the article, click here.